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Primate Classifications

Guenons
The guenons are the genus Cercopithecus of Old World monkeys. Not all the members of this genus have the word "guenon" in their common names, and because of changes in scientific classification, some monkeys in other genera may have common names that do include the word "guenon". Nonetheless the use of the term guenon for monkeys of this genus is widely accepted. All members of the genus are endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa, and most are forest monkeys. Many of the species are quite local in their ranges, and some have even more local subspecies. Many are threatened or endangered because of habitat loss. The species currently placed in the genus Chlorocebus, such as vervet monkeys and green monkeys, were formerly considered as a species in this genus, Cercopithecus aethiops.
Marmosets
Marmosets are the 22 New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella, Callibella, and Mico. All four genera are part of the biological family Callitrichidae. The term marmoset is also used in reference to the Goeldi's Monkey, Callimico goeldii, which is closely related. Most marmosets are about 20 centimetres (8 in) long. Relative to other monkeys, they show some apparently primitive features: they have claws rather than nails, and tactile hairs on their wrists. They lack wisdom teeth, and their brain layout seems to be relatively primitive. Their body temperature is unusually variable, changing by up to 4 °C (7 °F) in a day. According to recent research, marmosets exhibit germline chimerism, which is not known to occur in nature in any other primate.
Lemurs
Ranging in size from 30 g (1.1 oz) to 9 kg (20 lb), lemurs share many common, basal primate traits, such as divergent digits on their hands and feet and nails instead of claws (in most species). However, their brain-to-body size ratio is smaller than that of anthropoid primates, and among many other traits they share with other strepsirrhine primates, they have a "wet nose" (rhinarium). Lemurs are generally the most social of the strepsirrhine primates and communicate more with scents and vocalizations than with visual signals. Many lemur adaptations are in response to Madagascar's highly seasonal environment. Lemurs have relatively low basal metabolic rates and may exhibit seasonal breeding, dormancy (such as hibernation or torpor), or female social dominance. Most eat a wide variety of fruits and leaves, while some are specialists. Although many share similar diets, different species of lemur share the same forests by differentiating niches.
Patas
The Patas Monkey (Erythrocebus patas), also known as the Wadi monkey or Hussar monkey, is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over semi-arid areas of West Africa, and into East Africa. It is the only species classified in the genus Erythrocebus. Recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that it is the closest relative of the Vervet Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), suggesting nomenclatural revision.
The Patas Monkey grows to 85 cm (33 in) in length, excluding the tail, which measures 75 cm (30 in). Adult males are considerably larger than adult females. Reaching speeds of 55 km/h (34 mph), it is the fastest runner among the primates.
Spider Monkeys
Spider monkeys of the genus Ateles are New World monkeys in the subfamily Atelinae, family Atelidae. Like other atelines, they are found in tropical forests of Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Brazil. The genus contains seven species including the critically endangered Black-headed Spider Monkey and Brown Spider Monkey.
The disproportionately long limbs and long prehensile tail makes them one of the largest New World monkeys and gives rise to their common name. Spider monkeys live in the upper layers of the rainforest and forage in the high canopy, from 25 to 30 m (82 to 98 ft). They primarily eat fruits, but will also occasionally consume leaves, flowers, and insects. Due to their large size, spider monkeys require large tracts of moist evergreen forests and prefer undisturbed primary rainforest. They are social animals and live in bands of up to 35 individuals but will split up to forage during the day.
Macaques
Aside from humans (genus Homo), the macaques are the most widespread primate genus, ranging from Japan to Afghanistan and, in the case of the Barbary Macaque, to North Africa. Twenty-two macaque species are currently recognised, and they include some of the monkeys best known to non-zoologists, such as the Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta, and the Barbary Macaque, M. sylvanus, a colony of which lives on the Rock of Gibraltar. Although several species lack tails, and their common names therefore refer to them as apes, these are true monkeys, with no greater relationship to the true apes than any other Old World monkeys.
In some species skin folds join the second through fifth toes, almost reaching the first metatarsal joint.
Squirrel Monkeys
The squirrel monkeys are the New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. They are the only genus in the subfamily Saimirinae.
Squirrel monkeys live in the tropical forests of Central and South America in the canopy layer. Most species have parapatric or allopatric ranges in the Amazon, while S. oerstedii is found disjunctly in Costa Rica and Panama. Squirrel monkeys grow to 25 to 35 cm, plus a 35 to 42 cm tail. Male squirrel monkeys weigh 750 to 1100 g. Females weigh 500 to 750 g. Remarkably, the brain mass to body mass ratio for squirrel monkeys is 1:17, which gives them the largest brain, proportionately, of all the primates. Humans have a 1:35 ratio.
Capuchins
The capuchins are New World monkeys of the genus Cebus. The range of capuchin monkeys includes Central America and South America as far south as northern Argentina. Cebus is the only genus in subfamily Cebinae.
Capuchins generally resemble the friars of their namesake. Their body, arms, legs, and tail are all darkly (black or brown) colored, while the face, throat, and chest are white colored, and their heads have a black cap. They reach a length of 30 to 56 cm (12–22 in), with tails that are just as long as the body. They weigh up to 2 and a half pounds after reaching their final weight at adulthood.
Blue Monkeys
The Blue Monkey or Diademed Monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) is a species of Old World Monkey native to Central and East Africa, ranging from the upper Congo River basin east to the Great Rift Valley and south to northern Angola and Zambia. It sometimes includes the Sykes', Silver, and Golden Monkey as subspecies. Despite its name, the Blue Monkey is not noticeably blue: it has little hair on its face, and this does sometimes give a blue appearance, but it never has the vivid blue appearance of a mandrill, for example. It is mainly olive or grey apart from the face (which is dark with a pale or yellowish patch on the forehead - the "diadem" from which the species derives its common name), the blackish cap, feet and front legs, and the mantle, which is brown, olive or grey depending on the subspecies. Typical sizes are from 50 to 65 cm in length (not including the tail, which is almost as long as the rest of the animal), with females weighing a little over 4 kg and males up to 8 kg.
Mandrills
The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Cercopithecidae (Old-world monkeys) family, closely related to the baboons and even more closely to the Drill. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in genus Papio, but recent research has determined that they should be separated into their own genus, Mandrillus. The mandrill is the world's largest species of monkey. The mandrill is recognized by its olive-colored fur and the colorful face and rump of males, a coloration that grows stronger with sexual maturity; females have duller colours. This coloration becomes more pronounced as the monkey becomes excited and is likely to be an example of sexual selection. The coloration on the rump is thought to enhance visibility in the thick vegetation of the rainforest and aids in group movement.
Green Monkeys
The Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus), also known as the Callithrix Monkey, is an Old World monkey with golden-green fur and pale hands and feet.The tip of the tail is golden yellow as are the backs of the thighs and cheek whiskers. It does not have a distinguishing band of fur on the brow, like other Chlorocebus species, and males have a pale blue scrotum. Some authorities consider this and all of the members of the genus Chlorocebus to be a single widespread species, Cercopithecus aethiops — confusingly, the name "Green Monkey" has also been used for this single species.
The Green Monkey is found in West Africa from Senegal to the Volta River. It has been introduced to the Cape Verde islands off north-western Africa, and the West Indian islands of Saint Kitts, Nevis, Saint Martin, and Barbados. It was introduced to the West Indies in the late 17th century when slave trade ships travelled to the Caribbean from West Africa.
Colobus
Black-and-white colobus are Old World monkeys of the genus Colobus, native to Africa, and are closely related to the red colobus monkeys of genus Piliocolobus. The word "colobus" comes from Greek ekolobóse "he cut short" and is so named because its thumb is a stump.
Baby colobus are born completely white. Colobus are herbivorous, eating leaves, fruit, flowers, and twigs. The habitat of a colobus includes primary and secondary forest, riverine forest, and wooded grasslands; they are found at higher density logged forests more so than other primary forests. Their ruminant-like digestive systems have enabled these leaf-eaters to occupy niches that are inaccessible to other primates. Colobus live in territorial groups of approximately 9 individuals, based upon a single male with a number of females and their offspring. There are documented cases of "allo" mothering, which means members of the troop other than the infant's biological mother care for it. Colobus are important for seed dispersal through their sloppy eating habits as well as through their digestive system. In addition, they are prey for many forest predators. Colobus struggle from the bushmeat trade, logging, and habitat destruction.
Japanese Snow Macaques
The Japanese Macaque, also known as the Snow Monkey, is a terrestrial Old World monkey species native to Japan, although an introduced free-ranging population has been living near Laredo, Texas since 1972. It is the most northern-living as well as the most polar-living non-human primate. In Japan, they were historically known as saru ("monkey"). Nihonzaru (Nihon "Japan" + saru) is used in modern times to distinguish from other primates. Individuals have brown-gray fur, a red face, and a short tail.
The Japanese Macaque is diurnal and spends most of its time in forests. It lives in a variety of forest-types, including subtropical to subalpine, deciduous, broadleaf, and evergreen forests, as high as 1650m. It feeds on seeds, roots, buds, fruit, invertebrates, berries, leaves, eggs, fungi, bark, cereals and in rare cases even fish. It has a body length ranging from 79 to 95 cm, with a tail length of approximately 10 cm. Males weigh from 10 to 14 kg, females, around 5.5 kg.
Ring-Tailed Lemurs
The Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) is a large strepsirrhine primate and the most recognized lemur due to its long, black and white ringed tail. It belongs to Lemuridae, one of four lemur families. It is the only member of the Lemur genus. Like all lemurs it is endemic to the island of Madagascar. Known locally in Malagasy as hira or maky (spelled maki in French), it inhabits gallery forests to spiny scrub in the southern regions of the island. It is omnivorous and the most terrestrial of lemurs. The animal is diurnal, being active exclusively in daylight hours.
The Ring-tailed Lemur is highly social, living in groups of up to 30 individuals. It is also female dominant, a trait common among lemurs. To keep warm and reaffirm social bonds, groups will huddle together forming a lemur ball. The Ring-tailed Lemur will also sunbathe, sitting upright facing its underside, with its thinner white fur towards the sun. Like other lemurs, this species relies strongly on its sense of smell and marks its territory with scent glands. The males perform a unique scent marking behavior called spur marking and will participate in stink fights by impregnating their tail with their scent and wafting it at opponents.
White Bellied Spider Monkeys
The White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), also known as the Long-haired or White-bellied Spider Monkey, is an endangered species of spider monkey, a type of New World monkey. It is found in the north-western Amazon in Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil, ranging as far south as the lower Ucayali River and as far east as the Branco River. In the past, the Peruvian, Brown and White-cheeked Spider Monkeys have been treated as subspecies of A. belzebuth. As presently defined, the White-fronted Spider Monkey is monotypic. It has a whitish belly and a pale patch on the forehead, which, despite the name White-fronted Spider Monkey, often is orange-buff. They live in groups of 20 to 40 individuals, splitting into small parties of 1 to 9 when in activity.


See Also:

Primate Life History
Diet and Feeding
Cognition and Communication
Interspecific Associations
Social Systems



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